The defender – whose season has been hit by injury and suspension – played 90 minutes for the club’s Under-21 side in their 4-1 win over Norwich City at Whitley Park.
Captain Gael Bigirimana, Jonas Gutierrez and Jonathyn were on target for Newcastle, who went behind to a Carlton Norris strike but got back on level terms thanks to an own goal from visiting defender Ewan McNeil.
Gutierrez was making his first appearance for the club since early October, when he came off the bench in Premier League game againnst Cardiff City.
And it was Taylor’s first game at any level since August 19, when he was sent off against in the club’s Premier League-opener at Manchester City.
Norwich took the lead in the 27th minute through Morris, who caught defender Curtis Good in possession.
Newcastle were five minutes later after McNeil put the ball into his own net, and Bigirimana fired United ahead in the 36th minute with a well-taken free-kick after Guteirrez was brought down just outside the box.
Mbabu hobbled off the pitch before the break after being caught with a late challenge. The defender was replaced by Quinn for the second half.
Gutierrez – who returned to his native Argentina in October on “personal leave” – added to United’s advantage midway through the second-half after playing a one-two with striker Adam Campbell.
Quinn added Newcastle’s fourth from close range late in the game.
Mbabu left Whitley Park on crutches.
NEWCASTLE UNITED: Mitchell, Mbabu (Quinn, 46), S Taylor, Good, Dummett; Satka, Bigirimana; Aarons, Gutierrez, Roberts (Kemen, 66); Campbell. Subs not used: Gillespie, Pearson, Heardman.